Eloquence Language Manual


ASCII is the acronym for American Standard Code for Information Interchange. It is a standard way of representing characters and printing commands within a computer.
A collection of data items of the same type having from one to six dimensions.
array elements
Individual data items in an array.
array identifier
A numeric array variable name followed by ($\ast$), indicating the use of the entire array variable (for example, A($\ast$)).
array variable name
An array variable name consists of 1 to 15 characters, followed by a subscript. The first character must be an uppercase (capital) letter while the remaining characters must be lowercase letters, digits, or the underscore character (_). Array variable names are divided into two types--string and numeric. A string array variable name must end in a dollar sign ($).
bit bucket
An imaginary device where data is dumped and cannot be retrieved. Output from a program that you do not want sent to a terminal, printer, or file can be assigned to the bit bucket.
catalog spec
The optional catalog spec is a string expression of 1 through 6 characters in length. When specified, only those files whose names begin with that combination of characters are listed. A catalog spec is used with the CAT[ALOG] statement.
A letter, number, symbol, or any eight bits defined by the CHR$ function.
character position
Each position on a screen or printed page has a number associated with it. A screen has positions 1 through 80, while a printer has 1 through 132.
A fixed number within the system range, such as 2.12.
current line
The next program line to be executed. Normally the first line in memory, unless the program was suspended by HALT or PAUSE.
data list
A data list is a collection of items, separated by commas. The items can be variables, array identifiers, and numeric or string expressions. Including the optional END causes an EOF mark to be printed at the end of the data. Otherwise, an EOR mark is placed after the data list is written.
default device
The device to which all file storage operations are directed if no other device is specified. The default device is defined in the global or user configuration file.
device address
Each device connected to the HP 9000 responds to a unique address. The address is an integer between -2 and 99. For a list of reserved addresses, see page 249 in this manual.
display list
A display list is used when displaying output to the screen. The list may contain variable names, array names, numeric expressions, string expressions, or TAB, SPA, LIN, and PAGE functions. All items on the list must be separated by commas or semicolons.
file name
A 14 to 255 character string with the exception of a comma or a colon. It is recommended that a file name not include wildcard characters. Included in the file name is a five character extension--.DATA, .PROG, .FORM, .ROOT, or .DSET. Refer to page 195 for more information.
file number
The number assigned to a data file by an ASSIGN statement. Its range is 1 through 10.
file spec
File spec is a string expression of the form: file name[volume spec]
The optional volume spec is needed when addressing a mass storage device other than the default device.
formal parameters
Formal parameters are used to define a subprogram.
formal parameter list
The formal parameter list is used to define subprogram variables and relate them to calling program variables. It includes non-subscripted numeric and string variable names, array identifiers, and file numbers. Parameters must be separated by commas, and the parameter list must be enclosed in parentheses.
format string
Format strings consist of a list of specifiers, each separated by a delimiter. Each specifier creates part of an output format are numeric fields, string fields, blanks, or carriage control. Each numeric or string field specifier corresponds to an item in a print-using list, indicating how that item is to be output.
A function is a routine that manipulates numeric or string data, and produces a numeric or string value as a result. A set of commonly used functions is supplied as part of the Eloquence language. These functions are known as built-in functions.
function name ($)
Whatever variable name you give to a function of your own creation is that function's name. Built-in functions are already named, and are listed in page 125 of this manual.
integer precision variables
Integer precision variables hold whole numbers only (no fractional part). Integer-precision numbers range from -32768 to 32767. They are held in binary 2's complement form (not exponent and mantissa).
key number
There are 24 programmable softkeys, numbered 1 through 24.
line id
A program line can be identified either by its line number (GOTO 150) or, if present, its label (GOTO Routine).
line id list
This list consists of two or more line ids separated by commas. Computed GOTO statements use line id lists to branch according to the value of a variable.
line label
A unique name assigned to a program line. It can contain up to 15 alphanumeric characters including the underscore. The first character must be a capital letter. The line label is separated from the line number by one or more spaces and must be followed by a colon.
line number
An integer from 1 through 32767.
line width
Line width is a numeric expression from 20 through 264, which specifies the number of characters output per line for PRINT and PRINT USING statements. If you omit line width, either the previously set line width or the default width for that device will be used (display default = 80 char, all others = 132 char). Specifying -1 sets an infinite line length.
A matrix is a two-dimensional array.
multiple-line function subprogram
The multiple-line function subprogram is designed to return a value to the calling program, and is used like a built-in function such as SGN or CHR$. It is defined using the DEF FN statement.
number of linefeeds
The number of linefeeds can be any numeric expression; rounded to an integer, its range is from -32768 through 32767. Linefeeds cause lines to be skipped. If a negative number is given for number of linefeeds, its absolute value is used.
number of records
When creating a data file, you must specify the number records that you want your file to have. The number of records specified can be a numeric expression from 1 through 999999.
numeric expression
The combination of one or two operands (values) with an operator constitutes a numeric expression. The operator may be arithmetic, string, relational, or operational.
numeric variables
Numeric variables hold numbers, both positive and negative, integer or fractional. Numeric variables are themselves split into three types--integer, short and real.
numeric variable name
A numeric variable name is from 1 to 15 characters, the first of which must be a capital letter. Remaining characters must be lowercase letters, digits, or the underscore character (_).
Parameters are values in certain variables that are passed between a program and a subprogram. For example, the variable "Food$" may contain the value "Apple" in a main program. When the parameters are passed, "Apple" may be sent to the variable "Fruit$" in the subprogram. The variable name was not passed, but the value contained in that variable was.
parameter lists
Values are passed between a subprogram and the calling program segment using parameter lists. There are two kinds of parameters--formal and pass.
pass parameters
Pass parameters are used to pass values from the main or calling program to the subprogram. Each pass parameter must correspond to a formal parameter.
pass parameter list
The pass parameter list used in calling the subprogram can include numeric and string variable names, array elements and identifiers, numeric and string expressions, and data file numbers. The pass parameter list must be enclosed in parentheses, and the parameters must be separated by commas.
program debugging
Finding and fixing the mistakes in a program. Three methods of program debugging are available--single-stepping, program tracing, and program cross-referencing.
program segment
The term program segment refers to either a main program or a subprogram.
Prompts are any words or symbols that appear on the CRT screen when input is needed. INPUT and LINPUT statements use prompts to ask for specific data input. A prompt is not limited in any way, except possibly in length. An Eloquence line cannot exceed 160 characters; this means that the sum of a statement and its prompt may not exceed 160 characters.
real precision variables
Real precision variables are allotted twelve significant digits of precision. They are the most accurate form of holding numeric data but take up the most space.
record length
Record length is a numeric expression specifying the length of logical records in bytes, rounded up to an even integer. The length can be from 1 through 65534 bytes. If not specified, the default is 256 bytes.
record number
Records are numbered sequentially from 1. You know how many records you have if you created the file. (See the definition for "number of records")
redim subscripts
Numeric expressions separated by commas and enclosed in parentheses to redefine array working bounds. (The number of dimensions cannot change, and the total number of elements cannot increase over the number originally dimensioned).
return variable
A return variable can be a simple numeric variable or an array element. It is included in some statements to check for errors. Its value is returned after execution to indicate various results. The results are numbers that stand for different errors.
short precision variables
Short precision variables hold whole or fractional numbers. They are represented internally with a mantissa of six significant digits and an exponent in the range from -63 through 63.
simple variable
A simple variable holds either one number (simple numeric variable) or a string of characters (simple string variable).
standard printer
The output device selected by the SYSTEM PRINTER IS statement.
Statements are any valid, executable program command. Statements may be one of two types: 1) Declaratory (for example, DIM, DATA, REM, SUB, COM) 2) Executable (for example, GOTO, STOP, INPUT, PRINT).
A string is a series of ASCII characters which can be stored in a string variable. (In Eloquence a string may also hold display enhancement and line drawing characters.)
string expression
String expressions may contain any combination of string characters within quotes, string variable names, substrings, and string functions.
string variable
A string variable can hold any sequence of ASCII characters.
string variable name
A string variable name has from 1 to 15 characters with $ added at the end. The first character must be a capital letter; the remaining characters must be lowercase letters, digits, or the underscore character (_).
A subprogram is a group of one or more statements that performs a certain task under the control of the calling program segment.
subprogram name
A subprogram is separate from the program that calls it. Therefore, the subprogram has its own name consisting of one to six characters, including letters, digits, or the underscore. The subprogram name must be lowercase.
subroutine subprogram
A subroutine subprogram is designed to perform a specific task. It is defined using the SUB statement.
A subscript is used whenever a variable represents an array. A subscript consists of two or more integers separated by commas and enclosed in parentheses. These integers specify the array's size. The subscript comes immediately after the array variable name. For example, M(2,3) represents a two dimensional array named M with upper bounds of two and three. (2,3) is the subscript.
The system administrator for the HP-UX operating system.
A string of characters, quoted or unquoted.
unit spec
A string expression of the form: :A....Z[select code[,device address[unit code]]]
volume letter: See the definition for "volume letters."
select code: An integer from 1 through 15.
device address: An integer from 0 to 9.
unit code: An integer from 0 through 9.
A variable describes a location in memory in which values can be stored. Computer languages use variable names to represent these locations. Then each time that variable name is quoted, the computer looks up the corresponding memory location and finds the value. The value contained within a variable may be altered, hence the name "variable".
variable list
A series of numeric or string variables, separated by commas.
variable name
A variable name is from 1 to 15 characters, the first of which must be a capital letter. Remaining characters must be lowercase letters, digits, or the underscore character (_). Each string variable name must end in a dollar sign ($). Variable names must be unique.
A vector is a one-dimensional array. The size of a vector is limited by memory size.
volume label
A one- to eight-character string assigned to an HP-UX directory in either the global, group, or user configuration file. Blanks, nulls, commas, and colons are ignored.
volume spec
A string specifying either a volume label (preceded by a comma) or a unit spec.
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Eloquence Language Manual - 19 DEC 2002